Regulation of flowering time in Arabidopsis 

 

Links:

FIBR homepage

Flowering pathway

Photoperiod pathway

Autonomous pathway

Vernalization pathway

Gibberellin pathway

References

 

 

References on Gibberellins

 

Achard, P., A. Herr , D. Baulcombe and N. Harberd (2004). "Modulation of floral development by a gibberellin-regulated microRNA." Development 131(14): 3357-3365.

Araki, T. and Y. Komeda (1993). "Flowering in darkness in Arabidopsis thaliana." Plant Journal 4(5): 801-811.

Blazquez, M., T. Green, O. Nilsson, M. Sussman and D. Weigel (1998). "Gibberellins promote flowering of Arabidopsis by activating the LEAFY promoter." Plant Cell 10: 791-800.

Blazquez, M., L. Soowal, I. Lee and D. Weigel (1997). "LEAFY expression and flower initiation in Arabidopsis." Development 124: 3835-3844.

Blazquez, M., M. Trenor and D. Weigel (2002). "Independent control of gibberellin biosynthesis and flowering time by the circadian clock in Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol. 130: 1770-1775.

Blazquez, M. and D. Weigel (2000). "Integration of floral inductive signals in Arabidopsis." Nature 404: 889-892.

Carol, P., J. Peng and N. Harberd (1995). "Isolation and preliminary characterization of gas1-1, a mutation causing partial suppression of the phenotype conferred by the gibberellin-insensitive (gai) mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh." Planta 197(2): 414-417.

Chandler, J., J. Martinez-Zapater and C. Dean (2000). "Mutations causing defects in the biosynthesis and response to gibberellins, abscissic acid and phytochrome B do not inhibit vernalization in Arabidopsis fca-1." Planta 210: 677-682.

Cheng, H., L. Qin, S. Lee, X. Fu, D. Richards, D. Cao, D. Luo, N. Harberd and J. Peng (2004). "Gibberellin regulates Arabidopsis floral development via suppression of DELLA protein function." Development 131: 1055-1064.

Chiang, H., I. Hwang and H. Goodman (1995). "Isolation of the Arabidopsis GA4 locus." Plant Cell 7: 195-201.

Chien, J. and I. Sussex (1996). "Differential regulation of trichome formation on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces by Gibberellins and Photoperiod in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh." Plant Physiology 111: 1321-1328.

Cowling, R., J. Kamiya, H. Seto and N. Harberd (1998). "Gibberellin dose-response regulation of GA4 gene transcript levels in Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol. 117: 1195-1203.

Dill, A., H. Jung and T. Sun (2001). "The DELLA motif is essential for gibberellin-induced degradation of RGA." P.N.A.S 98(24): 14162-14167.

Dill, A. and T. Sun (2001). "Synergistic derepression of gibberellin signaling by removing RGA and GAI function in Arabidopsis thaliana." Genetics 159: 777-785.

Dill, A., S. Thomas, J. Hu, C. Steber and T. Sun (2004). "The Arabidopsis F-Box protein SLEEPY1 targets gibberellin signaling repressors for gibberellin-induced degradation." Plant Cell 16: 1392-1405.

Fleck, B. and N. Harberd (2002). "Evidence that the Arabidopsis nuclear gibberellin signaling protein GAI is not destabilized by gibberellin." Plant Journal 32: 935-947.

Fleet, C. and T. Sun (2005). "A DELLAcate balance: the role of gibberellin in plant morphogenesis." Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 8(1): 77-85.

Fridborg, I., S. Kuusk, T. Moritz and E. Sundberg (1999). "The Arabidopsis dwarf mutant shi exhibits reduced gibberellin responses conferred by overexpression of a new putative Zinc finger protein." Plant Cell 11: 1019-1031.

Fridborg, I., S. Kuusk, M. Robertson and E. Sundberg (2001). "The Arabidopsis protein SHI represses gibberellin responses in Arabidopsis and barley." Plant Physiol. 127: 937-948.

Fu, X., D. Richards, B. Fleck, D. Xie, N. Burton and N. Harberd (2004). "The Arabidopsis mutant sleepy1gar2-1 protein promotes plant growth by increasing the affinity of the SCFSLY1 E3 ubiquitin ligase for DELLA protein substrates." Plant Cell 16: 1406-1418.

Gocal, G., C. Sheldon, F. Gubler, T. Moritz, D. Bagnall, C. MacMillan, S. Li, R. Parish, E. Dennis, et al. (2001). "GAMYB-like genes, flowering, and gibberellin signaling in Arabidopsis." Plant Physiology 127: 1682-1693.

Gomez-Mena, C., M. Pineiro, J. Franco-Zorrilla, J. Salinas, G. Coupland and J. Martinez-Zapater (2001). "early bolting in short days: an Arabidopsis mutation that causes early flowering and partially suppresses the floral phenotype of leafy." Plant Cell 13: 1011-1024.

Gubler, F., D. Raventos, M. Keys, R. Watts, J. Mundy and J. Jacobsen (1999). "Target genes and regulatory domains of the GAMYB transcriptional activator in cereal aleurone." Plant Journal 17(1): 1-9.

Harberd, N., K. King, P. Carol, R. Cowling, J. Peng and D. Richards (1998). "Gibberellin: inhibitor of an inhibitor of...?" BioEssays 20: 1001-1008.

Hedden, P. and Y. Kamiya (1997). "Gibberellin biosynthesis: enzymes, genes and their regulation." Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 48: 431-460.

Hedden, P. and A. Phillips (2000). "Gibberellin metabolism: new insights revealed by the genes." Trends in Plant Sci. 5(12): 253-230.

Hedden, P. and W. Proebsting (1999). "Genetic analysis of gibberellin biosynthesis." Plant Physiol. 119: 365-370.

Jacobsen, S., K. Binkowski and N. Olszewski (1996). "SPINDLY, a tetratricopeptide repeat protein involved in gibberellin signal transduction in Arabidopsis." P.N.A.S. 93: 9292-9296.

Jacobsen, S. and N. Olszewski (1993). "Mutations at the SPINDLY locus of Arabidopsis alter gibberellin signal transduction." Plant Cell 5: 887-896.

Jacobsen, S., N. Olszewski and E. Meyerowitz (1998). "SPINDLY's role in the gibberellin response pathway." Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 51: 73-78.

Kamiya, Y. and J. Garcia-Martinez (1999). "Regulation of gibberellin synthesis by light." Curr. Opin. plant Biol. 2(5): 398-403.

Kania, T., D. Russenberger, S. Peng, K. Apel and S. Melzer (1997). "FPF1 promotes flowering in Arabidopsis." Plant Cell 9: 1327-1338.

King, K., T. Moritz and N. Herberd (2001). "Gibberellins are not required for normal stem growth in Arabidopsis thaliana in the absence of GAI and RGA." Genetics 159: 767-776.

Koornneef, M., A. Elgersma, C. Hanhart, E. van Loenen-Martinet, L. van Rijn and J. Zeevaart (1985). "A Gibberellin insensitive mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana." Physiol. Plant. 65: 33-39.

Koornneef, M. and v. d. V. JH (1980). "Induction and analysis of gibberellin-sensitive mutantsin Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh." Theor. Appl. Genet. 58: 257-263.

Lange, T. (1998). "Molecular biology of gibberellin synthesis." Planta 204: 409-419.

Langridge, J. (1957). "The aseptic culture of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh." Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 10: 243-252.

Lee, S., H. Cheng, K. King, W. Wang, Y. He, A. Hussain, J. Lo, N. Harberd and J. Peng (2002). "Gibberellin regulates Arabidopsis seed germination via RGL2, a GAI/RGA-like gene whose expression is up-regulated following imbibition." Genes Dev. 16: 646-658.

Lovegrove, A. and R. Hooley (2000). "gibberellin and abscissic acid signaling in aleurone." Trends in Plant Sci. 5(3): 102-110.

Magome, H., S. Yamaguchi, A. Hanada, Y. Kamiya and K. Oda (2004). "dwarf and delayed flowering 1, a novel Arabidopsis mutant deficient in gibberellin biosynthesis because of overexpression of a putative AP2 transcription factor." Plant Journal 37: 720-729.

McGinnis, K., S. Thomas, J. Soule, L. Strader, J. Zale, T. Sun and C. Steber (2003). "The Arabidopsis SLEEPY1 gene encodes a putative F-Box subunit of an SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase." Plant Cell 15: 1120-1130.

Meier, C., T. Bouquin, M. Nielsen, D. Raventos, O. Mattson, A. Rocher, F. Schomburg, R. Amasino and J. Mundy (2001). "Gibberellin response mutants identified by luciferase imaging." Plant Journal 25(5): 509-519.

Melzer, S., G. Kampmann, J. Chandler and K. Apel (1999). "FPF1 modulates the competence to flowering in Arabidopsis." Plant Journal 18(4): 395-405.

Michaels, S. and R. Amasino (1999). "The gibberellic acid biosynthesis mutant ga1-3 of Arabidopsis thaliana is responsive to vernalization." Developmental Genetics 25: 194-198.

Moon, J., S. Suh, H. Lee, K. Choi, C. Hong, N. Paek, S. Kinm and I. Lee (2003). "The SOC1 MADS-box gene integrates vernalization and gibberellin signals for flowering in Arabidopsis." Plant Journal 35: 613-623.

Mouradov, A., F. Cremer and G. Coupland (2002). "Control of flowering time: interacting pathways as a basis for diversity." Plant Cell Supplement 2002: S111-S130.

Olszewski, N., T. Sun and F. Gubler (2002). "Gibberellin signaling: biosynthesis, catabolism, and response pathways." plant cell supplement 2002: S61-S80.

Palatnik, J., E. Allen, X. Wu, C. Schommer, R. Schwab, J. Carrington and D. Weigel (2003). "Control of leaf morphogenesis by microRNAs." Nature 425: 257-263.

Peng, J., P. Carol, D. Richards, K. King, R. Cowling, M. GP and N. Harberd (1997). "The Arabidopsis GAI gene defines a signaling pathway that negatively regulates gibberellin responses." Genes Dev. 11: 3194-3205.

Peng, J. and N. Harberd (1993). "Derivative alleles of the Arabidopsis gibberellin-insensitive (gai) mutation confer a wild-type phenotype." Plant Cell 5: 351-360.

Peng, J. and N. Harberd (1997). "Gibberellin deficiency and response mutations suppress the stem elongation phenotype of phytochrome-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol. 113: 1051-1058.

Peng, J., D. Richards, T. Moritz, A. Cano-Delgado and N. Harberd (1999)(1). "Extragenic suppressors of the Arabidopsis gai mutation alter the dose-response relationship of diverse gibberellin responses." Plant Physiology 119: 1199-1207.

Peng, J., D. Richards, N. Hartley, G. Murphy, K. Devos, J. Flintham, J. Beales, L. Fish, A. Worland, et al. (1999)(2). ""Green revolution" genes encode mutant gibberellin response modulators." Nature 400: 256-261.

Peng, J., D. Richards, T. Moritz, H. Ezura, P. Carol and N. Harberd (2002). "Molecular and physiological characterization of Arabidopsis GAI alleles obtained in targeted Ds-tagging experiments." Planta 214: 591-596.

Phillips, A., D. Ward, S. Uknes, N. Appleford, T. Lange, A. Huttly, P. Gaskin, J. Graebe and P. Hedden (1995). "Isolation and expression of three gibberellin 20-oxydase cDNA clones from Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol. 108: 1049-1057.

Pineiro, M., C. Gomez-Mena, R. Schaffer, J. Martinez-Zapater and G. Coupland (2003). "EARLY BOLTING IN SHORT DAYS is related to chromatin remodeling factors and regulates flowering in Arabidopsis by repressing FT." Plant Cell 15: 1552-1562.

Putterill, J., F. Robson, K. Lee, R. Simon and G. Coupland (1995). "The CONSTANS gene of Arabidopsis promotes flowering and encodes a protein showing similarities to zinc finger transcription factors." Cell 80: 847-857.

Reed, J., K. Foster, P. Morgan and J. Chory (1996). "Phytochrome B affects responsiveness to gibberellins in Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol. 112: 337-342.

Reeves, P. and G. Coupland (2001). "Analysis of flowering time control in Arabidopsis by comparison of double and triple mutants." Plant Physiology 126: 1085-1091.

Reinhart, B., E. Weinstein, M. Rhoades, B. Bartel and D. Bartel (2002). "MicoRNAs in plants." Genes Dev. 16: 1616-1626.

Rhoades, M., B. Reinhart, L. Lim, C. Burge, B. Bartel and D. Bartel (2002). "Prediction of plant microRNA targets." Cell 110(4): 513-520.

Richards, D., K. King, T. Ait-ali and N. Harberd (2001). "How gibberellins regulate plant growth and development: a molecular genetic analysis of gibberellin signaling." Ann. Rev. Plant Mol. Biol. 52: 67-88.

Robertson, M., S. Swain, P. Chandler and N. Olszewski (1998). "Identification of a negative regulator of Gibberellin action, HvSPY, in Barley." Plant Cell 10: 995-1007.

Roldan, M., C. Gomez-Mena, L. Ruiz-Garcia, M. Martin-Trillo, J. Salinas and e. al. (1997). "Effect of darkness and sugar availability to the apex on morphogenesis and flowering time of Arabidopsis." Flowering newslett. 24: 18-24.

Sanchez-Fernandez, R., W. Ardiles-Diaz, M. van Montagu, D. Inze and M. May (1998). "Cloning of a novel Arabidopsis thaliana RGA-like gene, a putative member of the VHIID-domain trnascription factor family." J. Exp. Bot. 49: 1609-1610.

Scott, D., W. Jin, H. Ledford, H. Jung and M. Honma (1999). "EAF1 regulates vegetative-phase change and flowering in Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol. 120: 675-684.

Sheldon, C., J. Burn, P. Perez, J. Metzger, J. Edwards, W. Peacock and E. Dennis (1999). "The FLF MADS box gene: a repressor of flowering in Arabidopsis regulated by vernalization and methylation." Plant Cell 11: 445-458.

Silverstone, A., C. Chang, E. Krol and T. Sun (1997 (2)). "Developmental regulation of the gibberellin biosynthetic gene GA1 in Arabidopsis thaliana." Plant Journal 12(1): 9-19.

Silverstone, A., C. Ciampaglio and T. Sun (1998). "The Arabidopsis RGA gene encodes a transcriptional regulator repressing the gibberellin signal transduction pathway." Plant Cell 10: 155-169.

Silverstone, A., H. Jung, A. Dill, H. Kawaide, Y. Kamiya and T. Sun (2001). "Repressing a repressor: gibberellin-induced rapid reduction of the RGA protein in Arabidopsis." Plant Cell 13: 1555-1565.

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Sothern, R., T. Tseng, S. Orcutt, N. Olszewski and W. Koukkari (2002). "GIGANTEA and SPINDLY genes linked to the clock pathways that controls circadian characteristics of trnaspiration in Arabidopsis." Chronobiol. Int. 19(6): 1005-1022.

Steber, C., S. Cooney and P. McCourt (1998). "Isolation of the GA-response mutant sly1 as a suppressor of ABI1-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana." Genetics 149: 509-521.

Steber, C. and P. McCourt (2001). "A role for brassinosteroids in germination in Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol. 125(2): 763-769.

Strader, L., S. Ritchie, J. Soule, K. McGinnis and C. Steber (2004). "Recessive-interfering mutations in the gibberellin signaling gene SLEEPY1 are rescued by overexpression of its homologue, SNEEZY." P.N.A.S 101(34): 12771-12776.

Sun, T., H. Goodman and F. Ausubel (1992). "Cloning the Arabidopsis GA1 Locus by Genomic Subtraction." Plant Cell 4(2): 119-128.

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Swain, S. and D. Singh (2005). "Tall tales from sly dwarves: novel functions of gibberellins in plant development." Trends in Plant Sci. 10(3): 123-129.

Swain, S., T. Tseng and N. Olszewski (2001). "Altered expression of SPINDLY affects gibberellin response and plant development." Plant Physiology 126: 1174-1185.

Swain, S., T. Tseng, T. Thornton, M. Golparaj and N. Olszewski (2002). "SPINDLY is a nuclear-localized repressor of gibberellin signal transduction expressed throughout the plant." Plant Physiology 129: 605-615.

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Thomas, S., A. Philips and P. Hedden (1999). "Molecular cloning and functional expression of gibberellin 2-oxydases, multifunctional enzymes involved in gibberellin deactivation." P.N.A.S 96: 4698-4703.

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Thornton, T., S. Swain and N. Olszewski (1999). "Gibberellin signal transduction presents ellipsis the SPY who O-GlcNAc'd me." Trends in Plant Sci. 4(11): 424-428.

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